Background[ edit ] David Livingstoneearly explorer of the interior of Africa and fighter against the slave trade By European powers had established small trading posts along the coast, but seldom moved inland. Even as late as the s, European states still controlled only ten percent of the African continent, with all their territories located near the coast. Byonly Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent of European control.
Theory[ edit ] German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck repeatedly let it be known that he disliked imperialism, but German public opinion forced him to build an empire in Africa and the Pacific in the s  In the late s, the term "imperialism" was introduced to the English language by opponents 35 imperialism copy the aggressively imperial policies of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli — For some, imperialism designated a policy of idealism and philanthropy; others alleged that it was characterized by political self-interest; and a growing number associated it with capitalist greed.
Hobson and Vladimir Lenin added a more theoretical macroeconomic connotation to the term.
Many theoreticians on the left have followed either or both in emphasizing the structural or systemic character of "imperialism". Such writers have expanded the time period associated with the term so that it now designates neither a policy, nor a short space of decades in the late 19th century, but a global system extending over a period 35 imperialism copy centuries, often going back to Christopher Columbus and in some facts to the Crusades.
As the application of the term has expanded, its meaning has shifted along five distinct but often parallel axes: Those changes reflect—among other shifts in sensibility—a growing unease with the fact of power, specifically Western power.
Imperialism Hobson John A. Hobson strongly influenced the anti-imperialism of both Marxists and liberals, worldwide through his book on Imperialism. He argued that the "taproot of imperialism" is not in nationalist pridebut in Capitalism.
As a form of economic organization, imperialism is unnecessary and immoral, the result of the mis-distribution of wealth in a capitalist society. That created an irresistible desire to extend the national markets into foreign lands, in search of profits greater than those available in the Mother Country.
In the capitalist economy, rich capitalists received a disproportionately higher income than did the working class. If the owners invested their incomes to their factories, the greatly increased productive capacity would exceed the growth in demand for the products and services of said factories.
Lenin adopted Hobson's ideas to argue that capitalism was doomed and would eventually be replaced by socialism, the sooner the better. Hobson was also influential in liberal circles, especially the British Liberal Party.
Gann argue that Hobson had an enormous influence in the early 20th century that caused widespread distrust of imperialism: Hobson's ideas were not entirely original; however his hatred of moneyed men and monopolies, his loathing of secret compacts and public bluster, fused all existing indictments of imperialism into one coherent system His ideas influenced German nationalist opponents of the British Empire as well as French Anglophobes and Marxists; they colored the thoughts of American liberals and isolationist critics of colonialism.
In days to come they were to contribute to American distrust of Western Europe and of the British Empire. Hobson helped make the British averse to the exercise of colonial rule; he provided indigenous nationalists in Asia and Africa with the ammunition to resist rule from Europe.
Hobson theorized that state intervention through taxation could boost broader consumption, create wealth and encourage a peaceful multilateral world order.
Conversely, should the state not intervene, rentiers people who earn income from property or securities would generate socially negative wealth that fostered imperialism and protectionism.
These movements, and their anti-imperialist ideas, were instrumental in the decolonization process of the s and s, which saw most European colonies in Asia and Africa achieving their independence. The anti-imperialists opposed the expansion because they believed imperialism violated the credo of republicanismespecially the need for " consent of the governed ".
We hold that the policy known as imperialism is hostile to liberty and tends toward militarism, an evil from which it has been our glory to be free. We regret that it has become necessary in the land of Washington and Lincoln to reaffirm that all men, of whatever race or color, are entitled to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
We maintain that governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed.Approx. words / page; Font: 12 point Arial/Times New Roman; Double line spacing; Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard) Free bibliography page.
Imperialism is the domination of one state by another. This paper sketches a nonrepublican account of domination that buttresses this definition of imperialism.
It then defends the following claims. First, there is a useful and defensible distinction between colonial and liberal imperialism, which.
Imperialism II: Age of Exploration is a turn-based strategy computer game developed by Frog City Software and published by Strategic Simulations, Inc. (SSI) in .
Doug Coltart 🏽 🇿🇼 @DougColtart African. Zimbabwean. Human rights lawyer. Christ follower. Activist committed to the struggle against racism, sexism, inequality, imperialism and dictatorship.
The book Cigarettes, Inc.: An Intimate History of Corporate Imperialism, Nan Enstad is published by University of Chicago Press. In which John Green teaches you about European Imperialism in the 19th century. European powers started to create colonial empires way back in the 16th century, but businesses really took off in the 19th century, especially in Asia and Africa.