Visit the Thesaurus for More Choose the Right Synonym for discrimination discernmentdiscriminationperceptionpenetrationinsightacumen mean a power to see what is not evident to the average mind. On the one hand, it can refer to "the act or power of distinguishing" or to "good taste, refinement. On the other hand, when the perception of difference is marked by invidious distinction or hostility, the word often followed by against takes on very negative overtones, as in the senses "act of discriminating categorically rather than individually" discrimination against women, age discrimination and "a prejudiced outlook or course of action" racial discrimination. The original, neutral sense of discrimination, "the act of distinguishing," came into English by the early 17th century, followed by the positive one associated with superior discernment in the 18th century.
Getty Images Advertisement When is the last time a stereotype popped into your mind? If you are like most people, the authors included, it happens all the time. It just means your brain is working properly, noticing patterns, and making generalizations.
But the same thought processes that make people smart can also make them biased. This tendency for stereotype-confirming thoughts to pass spontaneously through our minds is what psychologists call implicit bias.
It sets people up to overgeneralize, sometimes leading to discrimination even when people feel they are being fair.
Studies of implicit bias have recently drawn ire from both right and left. For the right, talk of implicit bias is just another instance of progressives seeing injustice under every bush.
For the left, implicit bias diverts attention from more damaging instances of explicit bigotry.
Debates have become heated, and leapt from scientific journals to the popular press. Along the way, some important points have been lost. We highlight two misunderstandings that anyone who wants to understand implicit bias should know about. A majority of people taking this test show evidence of implicit bias, suggesting that most people are implicitly biased even if they do not think of themselves as prejudiced.
Like any measure, the test does have limitations. The stability of the test is low, meaning that if you take the same test a few weeks apart, you might score very differently.
Drawing that conclusion is to commit the Divining Rod Fallacy: There are perceptual illusions, for example, in which white subjects perceive black faces as angrier than white faces with the same expression. Race can bias people to see harmless objects as weapons when they are in the hands of black men, and to dislike abstract images that are paired with black faces.
And there are dozens of variants of laboratory tasks finding that most participants are faster to identify bad words paired with black faces than white faces. None of these measures is without limitations, but they show the same pattern of reliable bias as the IAT. There is a mountain of evidence—independent of any single test—that implicit bias is real.
The second misunderstanding is about what scientists mean when they say a measure predicts behavior. This is to commit the Palm Reading Fallacy: Most measures in psychology, from aptitude tests to personality scales, are useful for predicting how groups will respond on average, not forecasting how particular individuals will behave.
The difference is crucial. But if a large company hires hundreds of employees who are all conscientious, this will likely pay off with a small but consistent increase in careful work on average. What the IAT does, and does well, is predict average outcomes across larger entities like counties, cities, or states.
For example, metro areas with greater average implicit bias have larger racial disparities in police shootings. And counties with greater average implicit bias have larger racial disparities in infant health problems.
These correlations are important: Field experiments demonstrate that real-world discrimination continues, and is widespread. Yet, the widespread pattern of discrimination and disparities seen in field studies persists.
It bears a much closer resemblance to the widespread stereotypical thoughts seen on implicit tests than to the survey studies in which most people present themselves as unbiased. One reason people on both the right and the left are skeptical of implicit bias might be pretty simple: And that is an important cause of injustice—whether you know it or not.
He studies implicit bias and the psychological effects of inequality.The present document has been developed within the 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP TM) and may be further elaborated for the purposes of 3GPP.. The present document has not been subject to any approval process by the 3GPPOrganizational Partners and shall not be implemented.
Sep 28, · News about Discrimination, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times.
In other words, what if the rest of corporate America starts acting like Google? Yesterday former Google employee James Damore filed a class-action lawsuit against Google, alleging systematic race. To the editor: While pleased with Professor Woessner's overall analysis and the progression of his views and the information he and his spouse report, some of his assumptions should be questioned.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction towards, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
These include age, colour, convictions for which a pardon has been granted or a record suspended, height, disability, ethnicity, family status, gender identity, genetic characteristics, marital. Discrimination Lawyer - Discrimination Attorney, Law Firm Directory | FindLaw.