Aromatic compounds are among the most persistent of these pollutants and lessons can be learned from the recent genomic studies of Burkholderia xenovorans LB and Rhodococcus sp. These studies have helped expand our understanding of bacterial catabolismnon-catabolic physiological adaptation to organic compoundsand the evolution of large bacterial genomes.
Flexibility COST The overall cost of bioremediation is generally significantly lower than other types of remedial approaches. If the excavated material cannot be landfilled, disposal costs can rise dramatically.
In addition, an excavation option is generally not suited for saturated soils. The installation costs of mechanical systems soil vapor extraction, dual phase extraction, groundwater treatment, etc.
Although multiple injections can be required, most sites require less than 3 or 4 injections if the site is properly assessed. Bioremediation of a subsurface contaminant is typically accomplished by enhancing natural processes. These enhancements usually include the addition of a material into the subsurface and then allowing naturally-occurring microbes to degrade the constituents of concern.
Because this is essentially an apply-and-forget type of technology, there are little or no operating or maintenance costs after the material has been applied. Normal monitoring is usually required on quarterly or semi-annual basis to evaluate the progress of the application.
No above ground surface structures: Injection of material into the subsurface can generally be accomplished through the use Research on bioremediation direct injection or through permanent injection points.
If the application is done through direct injection, minimal disturbance of the surface is required during the injection event and the area can be put back into use immediately after the injection is completed.
Injection through permanent points can require the installation of surface and near-surface utilities and some above-grade structures but these can usually be minimized through the use of technologies such as horizontal drilling to reduce impact to facility operations.
To meet complete removal or destruction, both approaches require the practitioner to continue remediation until all of the contamination has been addressed.
The main cause of remedial option failure is the inability of a strategy to address sufficient contamination within a system to meet the goals of a project.
Biological degradation relies upon natural processes that under ideal conditions can be capable of complete degradation of a contaminant.
Ideal conditions are seldom, if ever, encountered in the field therefore the goals of bioremediation need to be commensurate with the resources available. Mineralization, or conversion of an organic to carbon dioxide and water, can be accomplished with bioremediation.
Rates of mineralization can vary from compound to compound but a significant increase in degradation kinetics can be expected for most sites. In situations with significant contamination over large areas, bioremediation can be very effective in reducing the overall mass of contaminants.
It is not unusual to see contaminant concentrations in groundwater to be reduced by at least on order of magnitude after bioremediation implementation.
In general, the maximum degradation level achievable is related to the resources allocated to the project. In this respect it is extremely important to understand the goals of the project before beginning design activities. Wide range of contaminants: Bioremediation can be effective across a very wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants.
Aerobic processes can be very effective on petroleum products including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, some chlorinated compounds, and some metals such as iron. Anaerobic bioremedial processes such as halorespiration are effective on a wide range of chlorinated contaminants including chlorinated ethenes and ethanes while the addition of sulfates can be effective in providing electron acceptors for the degradation of many petroleum hydrocarbons.
In the process of enhancing anaerobic bioremediation through the addition of carbon to a system many microbes will reduce the concentration of electron acceptors such as nitrates and sulfates. If these electron acceptors are identified as contaminants, the process of adding carbon to a system can also be considered an effective remedy for these constituents of concern.Alabaster Corp.
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Bioremediation is one method of cleaning up contamination in the environment through the activities of living organisms. There are three types of bioremediation strategies involving microorganisms: 1) Natural attenuation – In some cases, natural populations adapt to the contaminant conditions and are able to convert the contaminants to non-hazardous endproducts rapidly enough to prevent.
Bioremediation Bioremediation of Organophosphorus Compounds What We Do. Our principal laboratory focus has been on the microbial breakdown of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides.
New microbial strains are provided through the implementation of an Environmental Sampling Research Module (ESRM) as part of our undergraduate biotechnology degree that.
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in all areas of the field and making them freely available through online. Bioremediation means to use a biological remedy to abate or clean up contamination. This makes it different from remedies where contaminated soil or water is removed for chemical treatment or decontamination, incineration, or burial in a landfill.
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