Studying "The Iliad" allows students to understand more of the time period as well as Greek beliefs that have influenced modern culture and human nature, particularly attitudes and observations about warfare. Potential paper topics on "The Iliad" touch on these concepts. Gender Roles Examine the roles of women and men in ancient Greek society as depicted in the story.
History[ edit ] In antiquity, educated Greeks accepted the truth of human events depicted in the Iliad and Odysseyeven as philosophical scepticism was undermining faith in divine intervention in human affairs. In the time of Strabotopographical disquisitions discussed the identity of sites mentioned by Homer.
This continued when Greco-Roman culture was Christianised: Eusebius of Caesarea offered universal history reduced to a timelinein which Troy received the same historical weight as Abrahamwith whom Eusebius' Chronologia began, ranking the Argives and Mycenaeans among the kingdoms ranged in vertical columns, offering biblical history on the left versoand secular history of the kingdoms on the right recto.
With such authorities accepting it, post-Roman Europeans continued to accept Troy and the events of the Trojan War as historical. Geoffrey of Monmouth 's pseudo-genealogy traced a Trojan origin for royal Briton descents in Historia Regum Britanniae.
He had no intention to write history, but only to amuse us. Rutter, archaeological finds thus far, can neither prove nor disprove whether Hisarlik VIIa was sacked by Mycenean Greeks sometime between and BC.
This is due probably to the leveling of the former hillfort during the construction of Hellenistic Ilium Troy IXdestroying the parts that most likely contained the city archives. A single seal of a Luwian scribe has been found in one of the houses, proving the presence of written correspondence in the city, but not a single text.
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Research by Anatolian specialists indicates that what is called "Troy" was in the Late Bronze Age known to the Hittites as the kingdom of Wilusaand that it appears that there were several armed conflicts in the area at the end of the Late Bronze Age,  although this does not identify the combatants.
The Mycenaean Greeks of the 13th century BC had colonized the Greek mainland and Creteand were beginning to make forays into Anatolia. He posits that in all probability the Iliad preserved through oral hexameters the memory of one or more acts of aggression perpetrated by the Ahhiyawans against Wilusa in the thirteenth century B.
The particular narrative of the Iliad is not an account of the war, but a tale of the psychologythe wrath, vengeance and death of individual heroes, which assumes common knowledge of the Trojan War as a back-story.
No scholars now assume that the individual events of the tale many of which involve divine intervention are historical fact; however, no scholars claim that the story is entirely devoid of memories of Mycenaean times.
West indicated that such an approach "misconceives" the problem, and that Troy probably fell to a much smaller group of attackers in a much shorter time. Others accept that there may be a foundation of historical events in the Homeric narrative, but say that in the absence of independent evidence it is not possible to separate fact from myth.
Finleyin The World of Odysseus presents a picture of the society represented by the Iliad and the Odyssey, avoids the question as "beside the point that the narrative is a collection of fictions from beginning to end" : With the understanding that war was the normal state of affairs, Finley observed that a ten-year war was out of the question, indicating Nestor's recall of a cattle-raid in Elis as a norm, and identifying the scene in which Helen points out to Priam the Achaean leaders in the battlefield, as "an illustration of the way in which one traditional piece of the story was retained after the war had ballooned into ten years and the piece had become rationally incongruous.
Troy was destroyed by a war; 2. Agamemnon's overlordship was recognized by the other chieftains; 5. Troy, too, headed a coalition of allies. Finley does not find any evidence for any of these elements. Aside from narrative detail, Finley pointed out that, aside from some correlation of Homeric placenames and Mycenaean sites, [note 2] there is also the fact that the heroes lived at home in palaces oikoi unknown in Homer's day; far from a nostalgic recall of the Mycenaean age, Finley asserts that "the catalog of his errors is very long".
His gods had temples, and the Mycenaeans built none, whereas the latter constructed great vaulted tombs to bury their chieftains in and the poet cremates his. A neat little touch is provided by the battle chariots.
Homer had heard of them, but he did not really visualize what one did with chariots in a war. So his heroes normally drove from their tents a mile or less away, carefully dismounted, and then proceeded to battle on foot. During recent years scholars have suggested that the Homeric stories represented a synthesis of many old Greek stories of various Bronze Age sieges and expeditions, fused together in the Greek memory during the " dark ages " which followed the end of the Mycenean civilization.
In this view, no historical city of Troy existed anywhere: It is also worth comparing the details of the Iliadic story to those of older Mesopotamian literature—most notably, the Epic of Gilgamesh.An essay or paper on The Iliad and the Aeneid.
The Iliad and the Aeneid are undoubtedly two of the greatest epics ever written.
They form part of the foundation from which the entire western classical tradition was erected and are considered to be among the world.
The Iliad (/ ˈ ɪ l i ə d /; Ancient Greek: Ἰλιάς Iliás, pronounced in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to lausannecongress2018.com during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy (Ilium) by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the.
Two of the greatest epics ever written, Homer’s The Iliad and Virgil’s The Aeneid, have undeniably focused similarities stemming. Historiography: Historiography, the writing of history, especially the writing of history based on the critical examination of sources, the selection of particular details from the authentic materials in those sources, and the synthesis of those details into a narrative that stands the test of critical.
Hello, and welcome to Literature and History. Episode Horace and Augustan Poetry. This is the second of two programs on the Roman poet Quintus Horatius Flaccus, a writer who lived from BCE and witnessed firsthand the fall of the republic and the birth of the empire.
Homer's ancient epic "The Iliad" takes place during the Trojan War, a battle among the Greek city-states that likely occurred around B.C. Studying "The Iliad" allows students to understand more of the time period as well as Greek beliefs that have influenced modern culture and human nature, particularly attitudes and observations about warfare.