Some people, however, deliberately put obstacles in their own way, seem to court suffering, and need to fail.
Variations[ edit ] Directly self-denying statements[ edit ] The Epimenides paradox is a statement of the form "this statement is false". Such statements troubled philosophers, especially when there was a serious attempt to formalize the foundations of logic.
Bertrand Russell developed his " Theory of Types " to formalize a set of rules that would prevent such statements more formally Russell's paradox The self defeating test made in symbolic logic. Any logical system that is rich enough to contain elementary arithmetic contains at least one proposition whose interpretation is this proposition is unprovable from within the logical system concernedand hence no such system can be both complete and consistent.
Indirectly self-denying statements or "fallacy of the stolen concept"[ edit ] Objectivists define the fallacy of the stolen concept: An example of the stolen concept fallacy is anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon 's statement, "All property is theft".
While discussing the hierarchical nature of knowledge, Nathaniel Branden states, "Theft" is a concept that logically and genetically depends on the antecedent concept of "rightfully owned property"—and refers to the act of taking that property without the owner's consent.
If no property is rightfully owned, that is, if nothing is property, there can be no such concept as "theft. Proudhon used the term "property" with reference to claimed ownership in land, factories, etc.
He believed such claims were illegitimate, and thus a form of theft from the commons. According to Proudhon, the slave, though biologically alive, is clearly in a sense "murdered".
The "theft" in his terminology does not refer to ownership any more than the "murder" refers directly to physiological death, but rather both are meant as terms to represent a denial of specific rights.
We should note as well that Proudhon does not actually say all property is theft—he is referring to a very specific kind of property rights.
Proudhon favored another kind, which he called possession, based on occupancy and use, a sort of usufruct rights idea.
In What is Property? Separate concepts are therefore laid out in a way that can be confusing, especially if one is not familiar with them.
In logic[ edit ] Self-refutation plays an important role in some inconsistency tolerant logics e. For example, the negation of a proposition can be proved by showing that the proposition implies its own negation. Likewise, it can be inferred that a proposition cannot be proved by 1 showing that a proof would imply the negation of the proposition or by 2 showing a proof would imply that the negation of the proposition can be proved.
Examples[ edit ] This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.
August Learn how and when to remove this template message Brain in a vat[ edit ] Brain in a vat is a thought experiment in philosophy which is premised upon the skeptical hypothesis that one could actually be a brain in a vat receiving electrical input identical to that which would be coming from the nervous system.
Similar premises are found in Descartes 's evil demon and dream argument.
Philosopher Hilary Putnam argues that some versions of the thought experiment would be inconsistent due to semantic externalism.The Self-defeating Thoughts Test asks you to test your thought with the following questions. If it fails one or more of t hese questions you decide if you want to keep the thought or exchange it for another.
Self-refuting ideas or self-defeating ideas are ideas or statements whose falsehood is a logical consequence of the act or situation of holding them to be true.
Many ideas are called self-refuting by their detractors, and such accusations are therefore almost always controversial, with defenders stating that the idea is being misunderstood or. The Self-defeating Thoughts Test asks you to test your thought with the following questions. If it fails one or more of t hese questions you decide if you want to keep the thought or exchange it for another.
Self-defeating personality disorder (called the masochistic personality in this text) was dropped from the DSM-IV as a diagnostic category. The decision came after considerable debate over the viability and clinical utility of the construct (Fiester, ).
Self-defeating personality disorder (also known as masochistic personality disorder) was a proposed personality disorder. It was discussed in an appendix of the revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R) in , .
Cognitive-behavioral therapy-A type of psychotherapy in which people learn to recognize and change negative and self-defeating patterns of thinking and behavior. Cognitive-behavioral therapy-A type of psychotherapy in which people learn to recognize and change negative and self-defeating patterns of thinking and behavior.