Some 36 football fields of forests are hacked, burned, and destroyed every minute. With each forest clearing, we lose about species of animals, plants, and insects a day. Forests provide us with many benefits, including goods such as timber and paper. They help mitigate climate change by consuming the carbon dioxide we put into the air, while breathing out oxygen.
What are the major Consequences of Deforestation? An undisturbed terrestrial ecosystem naturally develops into a sparse or dense forest.
Factors like, humidity, temperature, rainfall and soil types etc. Those very factors of abiotic environment which influence and shape a forest are also in turn modified by the population of living organisms within the system. Deforestation involves removal of plant biomass which cripples the system.
Various useful products such as firewood, timber, honey, fruits, nuts, resins and medicinal plants etc. A chain of events is set into motion the consequences of which can be summed up as follows: Soil degradation and erosion 2.
Changes in climatic conditions 3. Destruction of natural habitats. Destruction of a valuable sink for environmental pollutants. Plants check rapid movement of air and water.
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Flowing waters stay in the area for a longer duration during which time nutrients are re-absorbed and as water percolates down, ground water table is recharged. Plant cover keeps the ground surface humid. Trees with the help of deep root systems are able to draw water from sub-surface water table.
Humidity prevents excessive water loss and rapid desiccation. Plants contribute organic matter which upon decomposition adds humus to the soil.
Porosity, water-holding capacity and productivity of the soil improve. Organic matter binds the soil particles in soil crumbs which make it more stable again forces of erosion.
Deforestation leaves the ground surface bare. In humid tropics a large portion of available mineral nutrients is taken away when the biomass is removed. Herbaceous plants and grasses are exposed to the action of sun, wind and rapidly flowing waters. There is further loss of mineral nutrients.
Grazing may remove much of the organic matter with which there is further loss of nutrients. Where remaining vegetation is burned to clear the land and agriculture attempted loss of nutrients is even more rapid. Already poor tropical soil is made poorer. All this further reduces the cover of small plants and grasses as well.
Adequate plant cover keeps the soil temperature lower.
At all depths up to 70 cm a higher temperature is observed in soil devoid of plant cover. Higher temperatures speed up mineralization of organic matter. This reduces the stability of soil crumb structure and the soil becomes easily erodible.
It also loses its capacity to hold water, recycle mineral nutrients, nitrogen-fixing capacity etc. With plant cover gone the battering action of wind and rains loosen the top soil which is thus carried along with water or air currents and deposited elsewhere. The top soil which is thus lost is irreplaceable.
Nature takes about years to produce 2. India loses about million tons of soil every year.
Of this enormous amount nearly million tons get deposited in stream and river beds, about million tons get lodged in dams and reservoirs and the rest is flushed into the sea Gurmel Singh qouted by Venkataramani, This has curtailed the life-span of our multipurpose, multimillion crore rupee reservoirs drastically.
The life of Ramganga reservoir in the Gangetic watershed has been curtailed to about one-fourth of its originally intended span of existence Venkataramani, Massive soil erosion aggravates flood situation in two ways.
Firstly, the deposition of silt and sediments in river beds makes them shallow. Secondly, land devoid of forest cover loses its water holding capacity.
About 10 million hectares of forested land can hold enough water to fill completely a reservoir as large as that of Bhakhra-Nangal dam.
In absence of plant cover this water flows down in rapid torrents.Another cause of deforestation is mining. Tropical forests are the location of many deposits of minerals and metals, including diamonds, oil, aluminum and gold. The forests are removed to extract. What are the major Consequences of Deforestation?
A rise in global temperatures, howsoever mild, could cause serious problems for the mankind. Vegetation acts as an effective sink for a number of undesirable constituents of the environment. Deforestation not only destroys this sink but also reduces soil's capacity to eliminate.
Causes of Deforestation. 1. Agricultural Activities: As earlier mentioned in the overview, agricultural activities are one of the major factors affecting deforestation. Due to overgrowing demand for food products, huge amount of tress are fell down to grow crops and for cattle gazing.
Causes of deforestation include; commercial logging, clearance for agriculture, roads and railways, forest fires, mining and drilling, fuelwood, and clearing land for living are just some of the main reasons, of which we have not found the worst culprit. 7 biggest threats to the environment – why we still need Earth Day on you but even a population dwindling can cause major problems for the human race.
and unchecked habitat destruction. Countries with significant deforestation in included Brazil, Indonesia, Thailand, the Democratic Republic of Congo and other parts of Africa, and parts of Eastern Europe, according to GRID-Arendal, a United Nations Environment Program collaborating center.
The country with the most deforestation is Indonesia.